Sao Jose Do Rio Preto - BrazilSão José do Rio Preto (Portuguese pronunciation: [sɐ̃w̃ ʒuˈzɛ du ʁiw ˈpɾetu]) is a municipality (cidade/município) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The city is located at the north/northwest portion of the state, 440 km (273 mi) from the city of São Paulo and 700 km (435 mi) from Brasília. With 408,258 inhabitants (IBGE/2010), is the 12th biggest city of the state and the 52nd biggest in Brazil.
Founded in 1852, its history is closely linked with trade, the provision of services and agriculture. In 1912, the railroad Araraquarense arrived and stopped in the city for 20 years, transforming São José do Rio Preto into the commercial center of the region.
Known as Rio Preto, is the center of a Mesoregion with 1,569,220 inhabitants in 29,387 km². The Microregion of São José do Rio Preto has a population of 763,534 inhabitants.
The literal translation is "Saint Joseph of the Black River". The city's name origin comes from the fact that Saint Joseph (São José) is the patron saint of the city, and the Rio Preto (Black river) cuts the city lands. A wooden sculpture of Saint Joseph wearing boots belongs to the city cathedral and no one knows for sure where it came from, but it has been in the city since it was a village in the 19th century, part of the city of Araraquara.
People believe that migrants from the state of Minas Gerais brought the sculpture with them in the 19th century, and that is the origin of part of the name. The river was believed black because there was a dense forest in the area, and even though the water was clear, the darkness made the river look black. March 19, Rio Preto's birthday, is Saint Joseph's Day and a holiday in the city.
Between 1906 and 1944, the name was shortened to "Rio Preto" and in 1944 there was a proposal for changing the city's name to "Iboruna" (Black river in Tupi language), but the name returned to the current form.
A vegetable oil factory from the 1940s, the "Swift", is a public cultural center since 1983, when it was bought by the city government. In June, 2012, a new theater venue was opened at the "Swift", the Teatro Municipal "Paulo Moura", with 954 seats.
Around July of every year, the city holds its popular "International Theater Festival". Foreign and Brazilian theater groups join the Festival, offering presentations and experimental workshops throughout the city, both in traditional theater houses, open air stages, and other less traditional performance venues.
Rodeos are popular throughout the region and the surrounding states. Rio Preto has annual festivals and competitions of the genre.
The city has a lively nightlife with many bars and clubs offering different styles of music. One of the most popular hotspots in Rio Preto is the Rock bar "Vila Dionísio", which show cases local acts as well as tribute bands and themed events.
The city hosts annually a LGBT parade, the "Parada do Orgulho GLSBT de Rio Preto", gathering thousands of people from the all parts of Brazil. As the city incorporates modern-day values of diversity and social inclusion, the local LGBT community has become more visible and active in the cultural experiences of the city.
Pedro inherited his father's love of Brazil, resisting demands from Lisbon that Brazil should be ruled from Europe once again. Legend has it that in 1822 the regent was riding outside São Paulo when a messenger delivered a missive demanding his return to Europe, and Dom Pedro waved his sword and shouted "Independência ou morte!" (Independence or death).
João had whetted the appetite of Brazilians, who now sought a full break from the monarchy. The ever-restless Paulistas were at the vanguard of the independence movement. The small mother country of Portugal was in no position to resist—on September 7, 1822, Dom Pedro rubber-stamped Brazil's independence. He was crowned emperor shortly afterwards. The emperors ruled an independent Brazil until 1889. Over this time, the growth of liberalism in Europe had a parallel in Brazil. As the Brazilian provinces became more assertive, São Paulo was the scene of a minor (and unsuccessful) liberal revolution in 1842. When independence was declared, the city of São Paulo had just 25,000 people and 4,000 houses, but the next 60 years would see gradual growth. In 1828, the Law School, the pioneer of the city's intellectual tradition, opened. The first newspaper, O Farol Paulistano, appeared in 1827. Municipal developments such as botanical gardens, an opera house and a library, gave the city a cultural boost.
Regardless, São Paulo still faced many hurdles, especially transport. Mule-trains were the main method of transportation, and the road from the plateau down to the port of Santos was famously arduous. In the late 1860s São Paulo got its first railway line, developed by British engineers, to the Port of Santos. Other lines, such as a railway to Campinas, were soon built. This was good timing, because in the 1880s the coffee craze hit in earnest. Brazil, which had been growing it since the mid-18th century, could grow more. The Paraíba valley, which spans the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, had suitable soil and climate. São Paulo city, at the western end of the Paraíba valley, was well positioned to channel the coffee to the port of Santos.
Vargas's rule was a study in political turbulence. Elected in 1934, he ruled by dictatorship (albeit a popular one, thanks to his health and social-welfare programmes) from 1937 to 1945—a period dubbed the "Estado Novo". Thrown out by a coup in 1945, he ran for office again in 1950, and was overwhelmingly elected. On the verge of being overthrown from office again, he committed suicide in 1954. Vargas's main legacy was the centralisation of power.
The encouragement of industry and diversification of agriculture, not to mention the abolition of subsidies on coffee, finally did away with the dominance of the coffee oligarchies. His replacement, Juscelino Kubitschek, focused on heavy industry. Kubitschek built car factories, steel plants, hydropower infrastructure and roads. Petrobras, Brazil's oil monolith, was set up in 1953. By 1958, São Paulo state controlled some 55 percent of Brazil's industrial production, up from 17 percent in 1907. Another of Kubitschek's pet projects was the creation of Brasília, which became Brazil's capital in 1960—the year Kubitschek stepped down. The University of São Paulo was founded in 1934; two years after São Paulo's failed uprising. It has established itself as the most prestigious higher learning institution in the country.
With a transitional government from military to civil and a new currency that made stagnant the economy during the mid- to late 1980s, unemployment and crime became rampant. São Paulo, by now the world's third-largest city after Mexico City and Tokyo, was hard-hit. Wealthy Brazilians retreated to suburban highly secured housing complexes such as Alphaville, and favelas, pockets of substandard living slums that lined the periphery, had a tremendous growth. For the first time in history, Brazil experienced large segments of its population immigrating to continents such as North America, Europe, Australia, and East Asia, particularly to Japan.
People of African or Mixed background are relatively numerous. São Paulo is also home to the largest Asian population in Brazil, as well to the largest Japanese community outside Japan itself.
There are many people of Levantine descent, mostly Syrian and Lebanese. The majority of Brazilian Jews live in the state, especially in the capital city but there are also communities in Greater São Paulo, Santos, Guarujá, Campinas, Valinhos, Vinhedo, São José dos Campos, Ribeirão Preto, Sorocaba and Itu.
People of more than 70 different nationalities emigrated to Brazil in the past centuries, most of them through the Port of Santos in Santos, São Paulo. Although many of them spread to other areas of Brazil, São Paulo can be considered a true melting-pot. People of German, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Russian, Chinese, Korean, Polish, American, Bolivian, Greek and French background, as well as dozens of other immigrant groups, form sizable groups in the state.
A genetic study, from 2013, showed the overall composition of São Paulo to be: 61.9% European, 25.5% African and 11.6% Native American, respectively.
According to an autosomal DNA genetic study (from 2006), the overall results were: 79 percent of the ancestry was European, 14 percent are of African origin, and 7 percent Native American.
The highway system of São Paulo is the largest state system of the Brazilian Highway System, surpassing the 35,000 km (22,000 mi). It is an interconnected network, divided into three levels: municipal (12,000 km (7,500 mi)); state (22,000 km (14,000 mi)); and federal (1,050 km (650 mi)). More than 90% of São Paulo population is about 5 km (3.1 mi) from a paved road.
São Paulo has the largest number of highways of Latin America and, according to a survey by the Confederação Nacional do Transporte (National Transport Confederation), the road system of the state is the best in Brazil, with 59.4% of its roads classified as "excellent". The survey also found that of the 10 best Brazilian highways, nine are in São Paulo.
The São Paulo highway system, however, is heavily criticized for the high cost imposed on its users. The state of São Paulo concentrates more than half of the toll roads in Brazil and a new toll plaza is created every 40 days average. According to a report of the Folha de S. Paulo, the cost of tolls to travel the coastal path of 4,500 km (2,800 mi) of the federal highway BR-101, which connect Rio Grande do Norte to Rio Grande do Sul, is cheaper than to go through the 313 km (194 mi) of highways separating the municipalities of São Paulo and Ribeirão Preto. The prices charged by private concessionaires who run the system are frequent targets of complaints from drivers.